初期インド・マトゥラー仏教造形の構造研究

<マトゥラー仏像の構造解析/仏像の起源と意味>
八木橋司
Jabrec Art Music

Investigation of Early Mathura Buddhism Sculpture
[Construction of Early Hindu Buddhism Art]
(1995~1999)
Yagihashi Tsukasa

 




In 1993, Yagihashi Tsukasa had found that there were the important geometric construction on some early Mathura buddhism sculptures. That essence is very simple and skillful. Artists in Mathura who had begun to make sculptures of Buddha were real masters. They had built up the fundamental concept spread as a important vision of Mahayana-buddhism from this age.

From 1995 to 1999, Yagihashi had written 3 articles to explain about the real and the concept of Mathura art. Artists of Mathura had been knowing the most essential geometric shape. It is a rational form constructed by 8circles on geometry. Yagihashi had called this fantastic form The Shape of Flower.

The 3 articles had been published by the art magazine [ars] from Tohoku university of art and design in Japan. This web site will introduce the outline of the articles.


花のかたち(1) 初期マトゥラー仏の構造と華厳思想
(1995年/東北芸術工科大学発行 ars誌3号)

The Shape of Flower (1)
The Construction of Early Mathura Buddha Sculptures
and The Idea of Buddhavatamsaka

1995/published by the art magazine [ars No.3]
from Tohoku university of art and design in Japan
Text-site(only Japanese) http://jam.velvet.jp/mathura-buddha.html



Pentagram of Mathura Museum A1 Sitting Buddha
On beginning of this study, Yagihashi had understood that this sculpture had been designed from the gauge of pentagram. This plan is faultless and the skill for making up is very correct. It is clear that the artist intend to put monumental signs on vertexes of pentagon, (root of linden, head decorations of two followers, top of finger).




PDF

The Shape of Flower
Next Yagihashi had understood that the gauge for this sculpture is more fantastic thing. It is a very beautiful form constructed by only 8circles. This arrangement of circles is pure geometric relation. Center points of outside large 5circles are vertexes of pentagon. And the formation of inner somewhat small 3circls is the method for tracing a equilateral triangle. This shape is like a image of flower.









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The Method to Chain Second Unit of The Shape of flower
Yagihashi had understood that Mathura masters had been knowing the method to chain this gauge while diminished it by a especial ratio. This diagram will be drawn by superimposition of the same unit diminished. Two units must pile up connecting at each center upper vertex of pentagon. When doing this operation, the second unit must diminish to be the next state. One especial cross-point of circles on center line will connect up another especial cross-point of first unit. This connected point is on throat of Buddha. The center circle of second unit is according the circle of halo of sculpture.



PDF 3step-unit PDF


More detaild explanation developing in 2011 for this sculpture and concern.

Sitting Buddha Mathura-A1

Standing Buddha Mathura-school in Gupta-age excavated in Jamalpur (mathura-A5/ 5th India)
Horyuji Sitting Buddha Asuka-age Japan 7-century
Celtic Disk of Metropolitan Museum and Ancient Chinese mirror in Han-age /Coordination of Construction


Matrix



Explanation of the matrix system


The Infinite Chain of Shapes of Flower
We can repeat the same process many times. This idea will lead us the matter of infinity and the concept of zero. When we draw this diagram, we are regarding the center upper vertex of pentagon as the zero point. The zero point is on the top of halo, the root of linden. This point seems to mean Nirvana (enlightenment of Buddha). Yagihashi is thinking that the spiral head top of this Bodhisattva is meaning his final movement to reach Nirvana. Now he has become almost being as Buddha.

If we repeat this diminishing drawing, we can see a fantastic space as perspective. Yagihashi is thinking this image of infinity space from an artistic practice concerns the idea of the infinity world the Buddhavatamsaka sutra (important mahayana-buddhism text) expresses.





The Infinite Chain of Hexagon
The next one fractal construction is meaning purely the especial property of equilateral hexagons and triangles. We will consider about the matter of infinity and zero from this view as well.





The Infinite Chain of Hexagon on Sarnath Museum Standing Buddha
This standing Buddha sculpture had been designed from The Infinite Chain of Hexagon. Today the top part of especial head of Buddha has lost. Now we can imagine the original figure from this analysing photo. Yagihashi is thinking this zero point of infinite chain must mean nirvana. Since this Bodhisattva has come to this nirvana point closely, he has become like the same as being of Buddha. This idea seems to be the real concept for making up sculptures of Buddha.




花のかたち(2) 仏塔と胎蔵
(1996年/東北芸術工科大学発行 ars誌4号)

The Shape of Flower (2) Stupa and Garbha
1996/published by the art magazine [ars No.4]
from Tohoku university of art and design in Japan


Reliefs of Stupa in BC Age Not Being Buddha Sculpture
We can see prototypes of early Mathura concept on circle reliefs of BC stupa age. Since artists in stupa age had used very straightly only one unit of The Shape of Flower, we can understand easily their concept for design.


perfect accord with the gauge

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curve of Naga by the gauge

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花のかたち(3) マトゥラー造形理念の展開、そして東へ
(1999年/東北芸術工科大学発行 ars誌5号)
The Shape of Flower (3)

Evolution of Mathura Sculpture Concept, and going to East
1999/published by the art magazine [ars No.5]
from Tohoku university of art and design in Japan

Yagihashi had confirmed that the idea of Mathura had followed as the root for making up sculpture of Buddha. Many important Buddha sculptures in Gupta age had been made from the gauge of Shape of Flower. Gupta masters had developed their new method from this root. It is very clever and amazing. And this stream went to Japan exactly. Yagihashi had explained it in this third article.

Sitting Buddha of Sarnath school in Gupta Age
This sculpture is a good example to know easily that Gupta-masters had been useing the same gauge. This gauge is made from two units by the former explained method. We can see the state that 2circles of the gauge are according perfectly to 2circles of the halo of sculpture.





PDF


Standing Buddha Mathura-school in Gupta-age
excavated in Jamalpur (mathura-A5/ 5th India)




Standing Buddha Mathura-school in Gupta-age/ excavated in Jamalpur (mathura-A5/ 5th India)
The construction of the halo corresponding with 16-radial matrix



Historical total development
The Consecutive Constructive theory of Buddhism Arts and Ancient Mirrors

The explanation to the constructive theory of buddhism sculptures that the early Mathura school shows, the Progressive step in the gupta mathura school and Asuka sculptures Japan and Vajrayana Mandala Tibet. The origin of this theory is found in wide Eurasia area before Mahayana.


Construction of Ancient disks
Celtic Disk of Metropolitan Museum and Ancient Chinese mirror in Han-age
Ras-shamra disks (Syria BC14^13th)


More reports
Construction of Mathura Buddhism Sculpture in Gupta Age
The scueeded Mathura theory to Asuka buddha sculptures in Horyuji
Construction of ancient mirrors of China and Japan


The 3 articles introduced in this site had been performed by Yagihashi Tsukasa and Jabrec Art Music from 1995 to 1999.
Developing investigation in 2011.

Inquiry to this work
Jabrec-Art-Music